Active Ingredients: Ciprofloxacin
All surgical wounds are contaminated by bacteria, but only a minority actually develops clinical infection.
Colonization occurs when the bacteria begin to replicate and adhere to the wound site. In most patients, infection does not develop because host defenses are efficient to eliminate colonizers at the surgical site; however, in some patients, host defenses fail to protect them from SSIs.
It is well known that surgical trauma increases inflammatory response and counter-regulatory mechanisms.
Such regulatory mechanism can decrease postoperative immune response, promoting SSIs. The pathogens isolated from infections differ, primarily depending on the type of surgical procedure.
In clean-contaminated or contaminated surgical procedures, the aerobic and anaerobic pathogens of the normal endogenous microflora of the surgically resected organ are the most frequently isolated pathogens.
Nevertheless, in some specific body areas such as the groin skin could also be colonized by enteric flora. Moreover, it is possible that procedures such as hip prosthesis or vascular bypass, performed on this anatomical region, might eventually be infected by Gram-negative bacteria.
Sganga et al. An important determinant of SSI is the integrity of host defenses. Important host factors include the following : age, malnutrition status, diabetes, smoking, obesity, colonization with microorganisms, length of hospital stay or previous hospitalization, shock and hypoxemia, and hypothermia.
It is a common practice to cover surgical wounds with a dressing. The dressing acts as a physical barrier to protect the wound from contamination from the external environment until the wound becomes impermeable to microorganisms.
Postoperative care bundles recommend that surgical dressings be kept undisturbed for a minimum of 48 h after surgery unless leakage occurs. However, there are currently no specific recommendations or guidelines regarding the type of surgical dressing.
The diagnosis of incisional surgical site infection is clinical. Most patients have systemic signs of infection such as fever and leukocytosis. Information on the microbiological species present in the wound is useful for determining antibiotic choice and predicting response to treatment.
An incisional SSI should be sampled if there is a clinical suspicion of infection.
Lack of standardized criteria for diagnostic microbiology of SSIs present a challenge to monitor the global epidemiology of surgical site infection. Emergence of antibiotic resistance has made the management of SSIs difficult.
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