Active Ingredients: Doxycycline
By day 21, there were no differences between treatment groups. Adverse events were similar for all treatment groups.
Ramoplanin was safe and effective in temporarily suppressing gastrointestinal VRE carriage. Within the past decade, health care organizations in the United States have witnessed the emergence and subsequent establishment of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus VRE as a major nosocomial pathogen.
The proportion of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium strains among enterococcal isolates from intensive care unit settings increased from 0.
This is particularly ominous when examined regionally: in the Northeast, vancomycin resistance among E. VRE bloodstream infections generally occur late in prolonged hospital stays ; affect patients with serious comorbid conditions, such as malignancy; and are associated with prior use of antibiotics, especially cephalosporins, vancomycin, and agents effective against anaerobic organisms.
Endogenous gastrointestinal carriage of VRE has been shown to precede and to be a significant risk factor for subsequent bloodstream infection.
Unsuccessful major decolonization trials have evaluated the use of encapsulated bacitracin, tetracyclines with or without rifampin, oral chloramphenicol, and oral novobiocin.
Prophylaxis has not been studied as an approach to decreasing the incidence of VRE bloodstream infections.
Ramoplanin is a novel glycolipodepsipeptide produced by fermentation of Actinoplanes strain American Type Culture Collection 33076. The spectrum of activity includes essentially all gram-positive aerobes and anaerobes, including Clostridium difficile, and all enterococcal isolates tested, including VRE, regardless of resistance phenotype.
We performed this phase II, multicenter, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of twice-daily oral dosing of ramoplanin at either 100 mg or 400 mg in the suppression of VRE in patients with asymptomatic gastrointestinal colonization.
Methods Study sites included 11 tertiary care teaching hospitals, 2 community hospitals, and 3 long-term care facilities. At institutions that did not routinely conduct surveillance for gastrointestinal colonization by VRE, institutional review board approval was obtained for informed consent for perirectal screening.
Enrollment of patients. Patients with active but stable renal insufficiency were included.
Concurrent antimicrobial therapy was allowed, and all concomitant medications were recorded.
Patients underwent a comprehensive physical examination and the following laboratory tests: confirmation of initial VRE carriage, complete blood cell count, baseline chemistries, urinalysis, determination of prothrombin and partial thromboplastin times, and blood pregnancy screening for women of child-bearing age.
Patients were then randomized to receive oral doses of placebo or ramoplanin twice per day 100 mg or 400 mg for 7 days. Study drug.
The study treatment drug was supplied in predesignated, blinded kits that contained vials of lyophilized ramoplanin or placebo. Microbiological methods. The rectum was swabbed with sterile, synthetic polyester—tipped applicator sticks that were placed in 1.
VRE was presumptively identified by use of colony morphology pinpoint, black colonies.
Herpes is a virus that most cats within a shelter have been exposed to either before or after entering the shelter. Many cats, both those that appear healthy and those that are sick, can shed herpesvirus - so there will always be a proportion of cats in your shelter that appear healthy but are shedding URI virus.
Accordingly, you likely already have cats mixed into your general population that are shedding URI pathogens.
You have probably also adopted out many cats that are shedding URI pathogens we all have!